Pêpindhan dan sanépa dalam bahasa jawa (analisis struktur, makna, dan daya pragmatik)

Indratmo, Aloysius (2007) Pêpindhan dan sanépa dalam bahasa jawa (analisis struktur, makna, dan daya pragmatik). Masters thesis, Universitas sebelas Maret.

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    This research aimed at (1) describing structural patterns of Javanese pêpindhan and sanépa, (2) describing meaning and semantic interrelatedness of elements in pêpindhan and sanépa, (3) describing pragmatic force of pêpindhan and sanépa. This research is a descriptive qualitative research. The source of the data were informants and documents. The data of this research are sentences containing natural pêpindhan and sanépa used by Javanese speakers and those which are used in Javanese literary works, both in written and spoken forms. The data were collected by means of cooperation with informants, and library research. Data were analyzed by applying Immediate Constituent Cutting Technique, followed by inverted and extended technique and pragmatic analysis. The results of the analysis are (1) a) Pêpindhan is a speech act expressing comparative meaning or explicit comparativeness. Its construction is formulated as follows: something being talked about (tenor) + a comparative marker + a vehicle. Sanépa is a speech act expressing implicitly equal or comparative meaning by deleting comparative marker. Its construction is formulated as follows: tenor + vehicle; b) comparative markers in pêpindhan can be a linguistic unity in the forms of: i) words having ‘like’ meaning, such as sasat, yayah, pindha, lir, kadya, kadi, kaya, pêrsis, or (ii) affixes attached in the vehicle in the form of nasal prefixes {N-}, {aN-} or infix {–um-}; c) comparative marker in the form of word having similar meaning but not fully substitutable. This is due to different style contained in each comparative marker; d) comparative marker is inherently inclusive in the vehicle of pêpindhan so that (i) between comparative marker and vehicle can not be inserted by another linguistic form, (ii) comparative marker is always in the initial position; e) Pêpindhan can be in forms of i) a simple sentence, ii) a subordinative compound sentence. When a tenor (in pêpindhan) in the form of a simple sentence is intelligible or contextually inclusive, it can be deleted. Such a pêpindhan has idiomatic meaning; f) the basic contruction of sanépa is a simple sentence, in which the constituent having the function of S and P. Tenor in sanépa can be extended with adjunct. If the extended form is placed before the tenor, it causes the change of structural function of its constituent, if it is placed after the tenor, it does not change structural function of its constituent. The basic form of sanépa can be combined with another clause so that they constitute a compound sentence, either coordinative or subordinative one; g) Tenor and vehicle fillers can be in the forms of word, phrase, and clause and they are interchangeable pairs. Tenor in sanépa is a noun having certain characteristic marked with suffix {-é}. Vehicle in sanépa is a phrase in which its constituent is an adjective and noun or noun phrase. A phrase which fills the vehicle is a modified construction with an adjective as a core placed on the left and a noun or noun phrase on the right as a modificator. Modified construction is one of the characteristics of sanépa. (2) a) Pêpindhan can be classified into form and content. Based on form, pêpindhan can be differentiated into i) explicit pêpindhan and ii) implicit one. Explicit pêpindhan is the one which has motive in its construction, while implicit pêpindhan is the one having no motive in its construction. Motive in pêpindhan is a part of tenor functioning as a modifier. In explicit pêpindhan, tenor has a given meaning and so does the vehicle. Meaning relatedness between tenor and vehicle is attributive. Based on content, pêpindhan can be differentiated into i) pêpindhan in relation with human condition, ii) pêpindhan about human activities, and iii) pêpindhan about non-human. Sanépa is a unique metaphor. Its uniqueness lies in its vehicle, i.e. constituent vehicle of sanépa having the category of adjective has a contradictive meaning compared to the meaning of its constituent with the category of noun or noun phrase following it. Contradictive meaning in vehicle emphasizes the whole meaning of sanépa. Based on its construction, sanépa belongs to explicit metaphor. Based on words used, sanépa can be antropomorfis metaphor, abstract-concrete metaphor, and sinaestic metaphor. Based on its meaning, sanépa belongs to nominal metaphor but its form is different from the one. The form of sanépa is identified with vehicle having two constituents and contradictive meaning. Based on its content, sanépa is classified into i) sanépa in relation with human condition, ii) sanépa in relation with human activities, iii) sanépa about non-human; b) Tenor and vehicle of pêpindhan reflects similar relation of condition, activity, perception, and culture. Relational similarity of tenor and vehicle in sanépa is based on perceptual condition and similarity. Perceptual condition includes characteristic, size, and colour; c) Relational meaning of tenor and vehicle in pêpindhan can be in the forms of i) relational similarity, and ii) relational attributive. Meaning relatedness of tenor and vehicle in sanépa can be differentiated into: i) adjective in vehicle refers to tenor as attributive, ii) adjective in vehicle refers to the preceding noun or noun phrase, iii) adjective is derived from noun in the tenor; d) There are utterances in the form of pêpindhan but the vehicle refers to something that has been mentioned by the tenor, therefore, they have no comparative meaning. Such utterances are known as pseudo-pêpindhan. (3) Pêpindhan and sanépa belongs to indirect non-literal speech acts. A speaker chooses pêpindhan and sanépa as teasing. Pêpindhan and sanépa emphasizes on politeness principles. They belong to off-record principle. Because pêpindhan and sanépa emphasize on politeness principle, they break the cooperative principles. Pêpindhan and sanépa belong to indirect non literal speech act, therefore, the pragmatic force is also indirect. Consequently, the pragmatic force of pêpindhan and sanépa is disguised as implicature. Pêpindhan and sanépa have directive pragmatic force with illocutionary acts such as teaching, advices, command or request, and prohibition, and expressive utterances are in the form of illocutionary act, such as compliments and critiques. In addition, pêpindhan and sanépa function as politeness and elegance.

    Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
    Subjects: P Language and Literature > PI Oriental languages and literatures
    Divisions: Pasca Sarjana
    Pasca Sarjana > Doktor > Linguistik - S3
    Depositing User: Riza Umami Nur K
    Date Deposited: 17 Jul 2013 22:40
    Last Modified: 17 Jul 2013 22:40
    URI: https://eprints.uns.ac.id/id/eprint/5911

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