Poliploidisasi Artemisia annua L. menggunakan Perlakuan Kolkisin dengan Variasi Konsentrasi dan Waktu Perendaman untuk Meningkatkan Kadar Artemisinin

SARI, DINA SELVIA (2018) Poliploidisasi Artemisia annua L. menggunakan Perlakuan Kolkisin dengan Variasi Konsentrasi dan Waktu Perendaman untuk Meningkatkan Kadar Artemisinin. Masters thesis, Universitas Sebelas Maret.

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    Abstract

    ABSTRAK Dina Selvia Sari. S901508003. Poliploidisasi Artemisia Annua L. menggunakan Perlakuan Kolkisin dengan Variasi Konsentrasi dan Waktu Perendaman untuk Meningkatkan Kadar Artemisinin. TESIS. Pembimbing I: Prof. Dr. Ir. Ahmad Yunus, M.S. Pembimbing II: Prof. Drs. Suranto, M.Sc., Ph.D. Program Studi S2 Biosain Pascasarjana Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta. Artemisia annua L. adalah tanaman yang saat ini menjadi sangat popular dibidang pengobatan alami. Tanaman ini menghasilkan senyawa metabolit sekunder yaitu artemisinin. Induksi kolkisin merupakan salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan kadar artemisinin. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menghasilkan tanaman A. annua tetraploid, menentukan perbedaan kadar artemisinin A. annua yang dihasilkan melalui teknik poliploidisasi dan yang dihasilkan secara alami serta menguji hubungan antara poliploidisasi terhadap peningkatan artemisinin pada A. annua Penelitian yang dilakukan meliputi beberapa tahap yaitu penanaman, analisis morfologi, pengamatan stomata dan perhitungan jumlah kromosom serta analisis kadar artemisinin. Dalam penelitian ini A. annua diberi perlakuan perendaman kolkisin (0,00%, 0,02%, 0,04%, 0,06%) dengan lama perendaman (0 jam, 6 jam, 12 jam, 18 jam). Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah terjadinya perubahan morfologi tanaman A. annua sebelum dan setelah perlakuan perendaman kolkisin. A. annua setelah direndam dengan kolkisin menjadi lebih tinggi (76,23 cm) dibanding kontrol (66,67 cm), memiliki daun yang lebih panjang (13,83 cm) dibanding kontrol (8,83 cm) dan lebar (13,83 cm) dibanding kontrol (8,83 cm), memiliki diameter batang yang lebih besar (2,83 cm) dibanding kontrol (1,67 cm). Analisis stomata dan kromosom juga berbanding lurus dengan perubahan morfologi yang terjadi. Stomata yang dimiliki oleh A. annua perlakuan perendaman kolkisin memiliki ukuran stomata yang lebih besar (lebar=0,025 µm dan panjang=0,039 µm) dibanding kontrol (lebar=0,016 µm dan panjang=0,027 µm) dan kerapatan yang tinggi (256,7 jumlah/mm2) dibanding kontrol (21,4 jumlah/mm2), sedangkan kromosom yang dihasilkan setelah perlakuan perendaman kolkisin lebih banyak (2n=42) dibanding kontrol (2n=18). Stomata dan kromosom yang dihasilkan setelah perlakuan menunjukkan adanya hubungan antara poliploidisasi dengan peningkatan kadar artemisinin. Kadar artemisinin A. annua mengalami peningkatan (17,83 µg/ml) dibanding kontrol (6,93 µg/ml) setelah induksi kolkisin. Kata kunci: Artemisia annua, poliploidisasi, kolkisin, artemisinin, kromosom ABSTRACT Dina Selvia Sari. S901508003. Polyploidization of Artemisia Annua L. in Using Colchicine Treatment with Concentration Variation and Immersion Time to Increase Artemisinin Level. Thesis. First Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Ir. Ahmad Yunus, M.S. Second Supervisor: Prof. Drs. Suranto, M.Sc., Ph.D. Graduate Studies Program of Biosciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Artemisia annua L. which is recorded as the very popular in the field of natural medical treatment. This plant produces a secondary metabolic compound which is called artemisinin. In order to increase the level of artemisinin, induction of colchicine was conducted as the very basic strategy. The purposes of this research were to produce tetraploid plant of A. annua, and to determine the different content of artemisinin A. annua produced by polyploidation technique and naturally produced and to test the relationship between polyploidization towards the enhancement of artemisinin on A. annua .This research had several stages consisting of planting, analyzing morphology, observing stomata, calculating the number of chromosomes, and analyzing artemisinin levels. In this research, A. annua was subjected to colcisin immersion treatment (0.00%, 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06%) with immersion duration (0 hour, 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours). The results showed that morphological changes of A. annua plant before and after giving the colchicine immersion treatment. After being soaked with colchicine, A. annua became taller (76,23 cm) than the controlled (66,67 cm), and had longer leaves (13,83 cm) than the controlled (8,83 cm) and broader leaves (14,33 cm) than the controlled (8 cm), and also had larger diameter of branches (2,83 cm) than the controlled (1,67 cm). Analyzing stomata and chromosome were conducted as the morphological changes occurred. Stomata of A. annua given the colchicine immersion treatment had a larger stomatal size (wide=0,025 µm and long=0,039 µm) than the controlled (wide=0,016 µm and long=0,027 µm) and high density (256,7 amount/ mm2) than the controlled (21,4 amount/mm2), where as the chromosomes produced after colchicine treatment were having more chromosomes (2n=42) than the controlled plant (2n=18). Stomata and chromosomes produced after treatment showed that there was a relationship between polyploidization and the enhancement of artemisinin levels. Artemisinin level of A. annua increase (17,83 µg/ml) than the controlled (6,93 µg/ml) after given the colchicine induction. Keywords: Artemisia annua, polyploidization, colchicine, artemisinin, chromosome.

    Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
    Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
    R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
    Divisions: Pascasarjana
    Pascasarjana > Magister
    Pascasarjana > Magister > Biosains
    Depositing User: Fransiska Meilani f
    Date Deposited: 14 May 2018 17:01
    Last Modified: 14 May 2018 17:01
    URI: https://eprints.uns.ac.id/id/eprint/41060

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