Hubungan Kekerabatan Bahasa Subrumpun Halmahera Selatan-Papua Barat di Halmahera Selatan

BURHANUDDIN, BURHANUDDIN (2017) Hubungan Kekerabatan Bahasa Subrumpun Halmahera Selatan-Papua Barat di Halmahera Selatan. Masters thesis, Universitas Sebelas Maret.

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      Abstract

      ABSTRAK Burhanuddin. T111408003. Hubungan Kekerabatan Bahasa Subrumpun Halmahera Selatan-Papua Barat di Halmahera Selatan. Disertasi. Program Pascasarjana Universitas Sebelas Maret. Surakarta. Promotor: Prof. Dr. Sumarlam, M.S.; Kopromotor I: Prof. Dr. Mahsun, M.S.; dan Kopromotor II: Dr. Inyo Yoz Fernandez. Ada tiga tujuan yang ingin dijelaskan dalam penelitian ini. Pertama, hubungan bahasa-bahasa Subrumpun Halmahera Selatan-Papua Barat (HSPB) di Halmahera Selatan (HS) dengan kelompok lain yang sesubrumpun dan beda subrumpun. Hal ini disebabkan: (a) cabang utama Austronesia (AN) (termasuk HSPB) yang dianut sebagian besar ahli linguistik historis Austronesia yang digagas Blust (1978, 1983/84, 1993, 2009, dan 2012) hingga kini masih diperdebatkan Nothofer (1992), Adelaar (2005), Grimes dan Donohue (2008), dan Schapper (2011); (b) terdapat ketidaksepahaman ciri HSPB yang diajukan Adriani dan Kryut (1914), Blust (1978), Ross (1994), dan Kamholz (2014); dan (c) ketidakjelasan batasan Subkelompok HS. Kedua, tingkat kekerabatan bahasa-bahasa HS. Hal ini disebabkan: (a) ketidaktuntasan pengelompokan yang dilakukan Blust (1978) dan Kamholz (2014); dan (b) bukti tingkat kekerabatan bahasa-bahasa HS yang diajukan Blust (1978) dan Kamholz (2016) tidak memadai. Ketiga, rekonstruksi Proto-Halmahera Selatan (PHS). Hal ini disebabkan: (a) etimon PHS belum menggambarkan yang sebenarnya; (b) bahasa-bahasa HS sebagai anggota AN belum dijelaskan, termasuk tipe perubahan bunyinya; dan (c) tanah asal bahasa-bahasa HS belum ditentukan secara spesifik, termasuk bukti linguistiknya. Untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut, telah dikumpulkan data menggunakan metode wawancara dan pengamatan dengan instrumen 200 kosa kata dasar dan 800 kosa kata budaya pada bahasa Buli, Maba, Sawai, Gebe, Gane, Taba, Maya, Biak, Sula, dan Asilulu. Data dianalisis menggunakan metode leksikostatistik dan inovasi bersama untuk menjawab dua masalah pertama, sedangkan masalah ketiga menggunakan pendekatan bottom-up dan top-down, metode padan intralingual teknik hubung-banding. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, pertama secara kuantitatif bahasa-bahasa HS lebih erat hubungannya dengan kelompok beda subrumpun dibandingkan dengan yang sesubrumpun, tetapi secara kualitatif memperlihatkan sebaliknya. Dengan demikian, hipotesis Blust (1978, 1983/84, 1993, 2009, dan 2012) dapat dibenarkan termasuk mengenai keberadaan HSPB. Hanya saja menempatkan bahasa-bahasa tersebut lebih erat dengan Oseania perlu diuji kebenarannya. Kedua, ciri-ciri Subrumpun HSPB yang diajukan Adriani dan Kruyt (1914), Blust (1978), Ross (1994), dan Kamholz (2014) harus direvisi. Ketiga, bahasa Buli, Maba, Sawai, Gebe, Gane, dan Taba baik secara kuantitatif maupun kualitatif membentuk subkelompok tersendiri, yang disebut subkelompok Halmahera Selatan. Keempat, bahasa-bahasa HS pertama-tama pecah menjadi dua, yaitu Proto-Halmahera Timur-Tengah-Selatan (PHTTS) (terdiri atas Buli, Maba, Sawai, dan Gebe) dan Proto-Halmahera Selatan-Selatan (PHSS) (terdiri atas Gane dan Taba), yang disatupisahkan oleh empat inovasi bersama teratur, 26 tidak teratur, dan 37 inovasi bersama leksikal. Proto-HTTS terbagi menjadi Gebe dan Proto-Buli-Maba-Sawai (PBMS), yang disatupisahkan oleh enam inovasi bersama teratur, 26 tidak teratur, dan 66 inovasi bersama leksikal. Akhirnya, PBMS terpisah menjadi Sawai dan Proto-Buli-Maba, yang disatupisahkan oleh sepuluh inovasi bersama teratur, 39 tidak teratur, dan 85 inovasi bersama leksikal. Kelima, penerapan metode inovasi bersama dalam pengelompokan bahasa-bahasa HS harus secara cermat karena dibutuhkan pengetahuan tipe perubahan bunyi tentang bahasa-bahasa tersebut. Keenam, Proto-Halmahera Selatan, memiliki enam vokal (/i, u, e, ě, o, dan a) dan 20 konsonan (/p, b, d, t, g, k, j, c, m, n, ŋ, ñ, q, h, f, s, r, l, w, y/. Ketujuh, perubahan bunyi yang terjadi dalam bahasa-bahasa HS relatif kompleks baik dalam hal tahapan maupun alternatif perubahannya. Kedelapan, berdasarkan bukti fonologi, Pulau Gebe diduga menjadi tanah asal bahasa-bahasa HS. Dari Pulau Gebe kemudian bermigrasi ke Patani dan Gane. Migrasi ke Patani kemudian menyebar ke wilayah Maba-Buli dan Weda-Sawai, sedangkan migrasi ke Gane kemudian bermigrasi ke Pulau Kayoa dan Makian (Timur) di mana penutur bahasa Taba bermukim. Kata kunci: hubungan kekerabatan, Subrumpun Halmahera Selatan-Papua Barat, Halmahera Selatan, leksikostatistik, inovasi bersama. ABSTRACS Burhanuddin. T111408003. Historical Relationship of South Halmahera-West New Guinea Languages in South Halmahera. Disertation. Program S3 Linguistik Pascasarjana Universitas Sebelas Maret. Surakarta. Promotor: Prof. Dr. Sumarlam, M.S.; Kopromotor I: Prof. Dr. Mahsun, M.S.; dan Kopromotor II: Dr. Inyo Yoz Fernandez. This research aims to explains three issues. Firstly, it seeks to clarify the linguistic relations held among the South Halmahera-West New Guinea (SHWNG) in the area of Southern Halmahera with other groups which has sub-cluster as well as those which donot have subcultural relationship. This is due to: (a) the main branch of Austronesian (AN) (including SHWNG) which the majority of Austronesian historical linguists proposed by Blust (to date is still debatable in Nothofer (1992), Adelaar (2005), Grimes and Donohue (2008), and Schapper (2011); (b) there still remains characteristic differences between the SHWNG as proposed by Adriani and Kryut (1914), Blust (1978), Ross (1994), and Kamholz (2014); and (c) and the borderline of the SH subgroups themselves is still undistinct. Second, the historical relationship of South Halmahera languages. The problems surface due to: (a) the grouping conducted by Blust (1978) and Kamholz (2014) is not comprehensive; and (b) the evidences on the level of family relations among South Halmahera (SH) languages are considered less sufficient. The third, the reconstruction of the Proto-South Halmahera (PSH). This is caused by: (a) the PSH etymons do not represent the reality; (b) The status of SH languages as the members of AN has not been comprehensively explained, including the type of their phonological changes; and (c) the areal origins of SH language has not been specifically determined, including their linguistic proofs. In order to achieve those purposes, the research has conducted data gathering by applying interview and observatory methods with instrument containing 200 basic words and some 800 cultural basic words in Buli, Maba, Sawai, Gebe, Gane, Taba, Maya, Biak, Sula, and Asilulu. The data gathered are then analysed using lexicostatistic and shared innovation method in order to answer the first two problems, while the third are elaborated using bottom-up and top-down approaches, correspondence method with an intralingual correlation-comparative technique. The findings show that, firstly, the SH languages are quantitatively closer to the groups with different sub-cluster than to those of the same sub-clusters, but qualitatively the relation goes to the opposite direction. In this way, Blust’s hypothesis (1978, 1983/84, 1993, 2009, and 2012) holds true including his hypothesis on the SHWNG family ties. However, further scrutinized studies are required with regards to the classifying of those languages as closer to the Oceanic family. Second, The SHWNG properties proposed by Adriani and Kruyt (1914), Blust (1978), Ross (1994) and Kamholz (2014) require revision. Third, Buli, Maba, Sawai, Gebe, Gane, and Taba languages have their own separate subgrouping either qualitative or quantitatively, called SH subgroup. Forth, The SH languages firstly split in two branches, the Proto-Central-Eastern South Halmahera (PCESH) (including Buli, Maba, Sawai, and Gebe) and The Proto-Southern-South Halmahera (PSSH) (covering Gane and Taba), which were disunified by 4 regular shared innovations, 26 irregular innovations, and 37 lexical shared innovations. The PCESH is divided into Gebe and Buli-Maba-Sawai (PBMS) which is disunified by 6 regular shared innovation, 26 non regular ones, and some 66 lexical shared innovation. Finally, PBMS is further separated into Sawai and Proto Buli-Maba, which are disunified by ten regular shared innovation, 39 non-regular, and 85 belong to lexical shared innovation. Fifth,the application of shared innovation method in grouping SH languages must be carefully conducted because expertise on the type of phonological changes about those language is highly required. Sixth, PSH has six vowel phoneme system (/i, u, e, ě, o, and a/) and 20 consonant (/p, b, d, t, g, k, j, c, m, n, ŋ, ñ, q, h, f, s, r, l, w, y/). Seventh, the sound change taking place in SH languages is relatively complex both in it stages as well as in its change alternatives. Eighth, based on phonological evidences, Gebe Island is assumed to be the land of origin of SH languages. From there, the migration extended further to Patani and Gane. The migration to Patani extended further to Maba-Buli and Weda-Sawai, wile the migration to Gane derived further to Kayoa Island and Makian (East) where the speakers of Taba language reside. Key Words: Historical relationship, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Lexicostatistics, shared innovation.

      Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
      Subjects: P Language and Literature > P Philology. Linguistics
      Divisions: Pascasarjana
      Pascasarjana > Magister
      Pascasarjana > Magister > Linguistik - S2
      Depositing User: rifqi imaduddin
      Date Deposited: 26 Oct 2017 15:27
      Last Modified: 26 Oct 2017 15:27
      URI: https://eprints.uns.ac.id/id/eprint/35560

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