Pemanfaatan Teknologi Surya Termal Dalam Pengering Kayu Hibrida Sistem Integral HP/T Collector Untuk Memenuhi Kebutuhan Energi Secara Mandiri Di Industri Mebel Pedesaan

Kristiawan, Budi (2011) Pemanfaatan Teknologi Surya Termal Dalam Pengering Kayu Hibrida Sistem Integral HP/T Collector Untuk Memenuhi Kebutuhan Energi Secara Mandiri Di Industri Mebel Pedesaan. .

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    Wood drying process is important stage which has to exist in furniture production process. The objective of wood drying is to diminish wood moisture content until it reaches 10 to 12 %. To attain of wood moisture content desired, the drying process requires an artificial wood dryer. The drying process will take a lot of time during few months if no use it. There are four influential factors in the wood drying process, specifically, 1) short in drying time, 2) low energy consumption, 3) rational cost and 4) appropriate drying quality or demand. Based on these influential factors, one of important parameter in the wood drying process is low energy consumption. The longer drying time, the greater drying operational cost. Many small and intermediate furniture industries in the rural furniture industries have engaged a traditional wood dryer in its furniture production process using ' wood waste burnt. The rural furniture industries below Furniture Cooperative "Manunggal Jaya" management in Serenan, Juwiring Sub-district, Klaten District receive wood dryer aid with capacity wood drying 20 cubic meter form local government Central Java Province in 2004. This wood dryer aid can not be operated because of tremendously high operational drying cost prior to research team attendance. The research team are researcher staff of Mechanical Department Engineering Faculty Sebelas Maret University (UNS) and peer group member at Center of Study and Development for Industry Collaboration and Technology (PKPTKI) Institute for Research and Community Service (LPPM) UNS. PKPTKI LPPM UNS collaborate with Ministry of Research and Technology to redesign and to apply usage of solar thermal technology on the integrated system HP/T Collector. The aims of the present work are to result a -wood dryer engineering design with drying capacity of 20 cubic meter using solar thermal technology on the integrated system HP/T Collector, to apply and to modify solar thermal technology on environment-friendly wood drying process, to diminish energy and operational drying expense, to enhance quality of wood drying, as well as to improve Indonesian product competitiveness in internationalfurniture trade. This present work was scheduled for two years in 2010 and 2011. We have performed on wood drying capacity 5 m or one chamber since the end first year. Whereas, we complete this work for wood drying capacity 15 m3 in 2011. Thus, total capacity of wood drying is 20 m3. We have applied solar thermal technology which have the form thermal collector. We have designed and constructed kiln drying using the integrated system HP/T Collector in Serenan Klaten. According to the integrated system HP/T Collector, wood drying devices consist of two main unit, namely, heat pump dryer unit and thermal collector unit. We apply heat pump dryer with two condensing unit (Tecumsech FH4518YHR) that consist of compressor (Tecumsech FH 4518 Y), condensor with one axial fan, receiver tank and HP/LP pressure controll. Heat pump dryer is oho completed with thermal expansion valve (Danfoss) and evaporator (Rainbow) using one axial fan. To measure refrigerant pressure, there are four pressure gages in the heat pump dryer system. Enviroment-friendfy refrigrant R-134a is applied as working fluid. Two type of thermal collectors form are adjusted with dryer's roof based upon their casing shape, namely, type F and type flat which they have 21,66 square meter of total cross area. The fabricated thermal collectors consist of transparent cover with thickness 5 mm, alumunium casing with thickness 1 mm, and black absorber plate isolated. To discharge air flow from thermal collector, drying system of one chamber applies two centrifugal blowers with 3 inchi in diameter, 3000 rpm in speed of rotation and 370 W in electricity power. PVC tubes with diameter 4 inchi are used to flow of hot air from above thermal collector. Isolated black absorber plate consists of square hollow pipe with dimension 3 cm x 3 cm, alumunium plate with thickness 1 mm, and engine isolator with thickness 5 mm. Properties of absorber plate are thermal conductivity, k = 202 W/m. °C and absorbtance, a = 0,96. There are two research stages, namely, preparing stage and testing stage. In preparing stage, we set up of measuring devices used in testing stage, such : dry and wet termometer (To, and T^, thermocouple type-K and its reader, anemometer, pyranometer, fluke power analyzer, wood moisture content meter, refrigerant digital scale and other supporting devices. Besides preparing of measuring devices used, in this stage we also prepare mahogany wood (Swietenia mahagoni) with length 2 m ±3 cm, width 0,20 m ±3 cm, and thickness 3 cm ±0,03 cm as test sample. In this experiment, we use approximately volume 1 cubic meter of mahogany wood or 100 pieces as test samples. In the testing stage, we evaluate performance of drying efficiency on the integrated system HP/T Collector. This stage is appropriate with real condition in drying industry. Wood drying process is performed during 24 hours which be distinguished into two operating cyles, specifically, thermal collector cycle and heat pump dryer cycle. Thermal collector cycle operates during 8 hours in the morning (8 am) until in the evening (4 pm). Whereas, heat pump dryer cycle operates during 15 hours in the evening (5 pm) until in the next day morning (8 am). We require one hour in time to measure of mass wood, wood woisture content, and relative humidity at the end of thermal collector cyle. Wood drying process continuously operates until average final wood misture content desired achieves 12% of wood moisture content. We also record kWh meter to evaluate of electricity energy used during wood drying process. The research results show that on the first day of the drying process has the highest mass and moisture content (MC) reduction of wood, which are 41.14 kg and 11.7%db, respectively. The best solar dryer system performance is obtained at the highest thermal efficiency and the lowest specific energy consumption, that is, 13.44% and 20.83 Ml/kg, respectively. The higher of the COP, MER and SMER, the better heat pump dryer system. The results of the average value of the actual COP in heat pumps 1 and 2 are 3.04 and 3.07, respectively. The average value of MER and SMER are 0.394 kg/h and 0.184 kg/kWh, respectively. The average value of the drying rate on the combined system is 0.1%db/h. The cost of electrical energy consumption in this drying process is Rp. 518.022,-for 1.1 m3 of wood samples.

    Item Type: Article
    Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
    Q Science > QC Physics
    T Technology > T Technology (General)
    Divisions: Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat - LPPM
    Depositing User: Miranda Nur Q. A.
    Date Deposited: 26 Apr 2014 13:46
    Last Modified: 26 Apr 2014 13:46

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