Sintesis Katalis Heterogen Nanokomposit ZnO/Fe 2O3 untuk Reaksi Trans-Esterifikasi pada Pembuatan Biodiesel Berkualitas Tinggi

Jumari, Arif and Purwanto, Agus and Distantina, Sperisa (2011) Sintesis Katalis Heterogen Nanokomposit ZnO/Fe 2O3 untuk Reaksi Trans-Esterifikasi pada Pembuatan Biodiesel Berkualitas Tinggi. .

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    The increasing of the price and the decreasing of the resources of petroleum have to be anticipated by finding alternatives energy resources, especially the renewable energy resources. Biodiesel, one of the alternative energy, have many advantages. The advantages of the use of biodisel are renewable energy, lower emission, able to be used as petrosolar adititive, as wel as non-toxic Biodiesel is usualy made from vegetable oil by esterification proce ss. The esterification for producing biodiesel was much carried out using homogeneous catalyst (acid/base). These process had many disanvantages such as high energy consumption, side product formed and complicated separation among product, side product and catalyst. Because of these, it is needed a heterogeous catalyst which is able to give a high reaction yield and is easily separated from biodiesel product. ZnO as transesterification catalyst has given high yield (86.1%) and high content of methyl ester (98.9%) of biodiesel product. To improve the catalytic performance, the catalyst specific surface must be increased by, such as, decreasing the size of particle. To ease the separation between product and catalyst, the magnetic characteristic should be added to the catalyst. The aim of the research were to obtain nanocomposite ZnO/Fe 2O3 and determine physical characteristic as well as catalytic and separation performance of nanocomposite ZnO/Fe 2O3. In the first two years of the research, the nanocomposite catalyst of ZnO/Fe2O3 had been produced and characterized its physical properties. The research had also determined the best operating conditions of manufacturing nanocomposite catalyst of ZnO/Fe2O3, i.e.,ratio of Zn(NO 3)2 and Fe(NO 3)3 in precursor solution 1:1.; Flowrate of LPG 0,3 L/minute; Carrier gas flowrate 1 L/menit. At those conditions nanocomposite of ZnO/Fe 2O3 obtained had 50-100 nm in size and 45-55 m 2 /gram of specific surfaceas well as a property of attracted by magnet. In the last year of the research, the research was focused on the determination of catalytic performance of nanocomposite of ZnO/Fe 2O3 as catalyst on transesterification reaction for producing biodiesel. Here, Waste of Cooking Oil, instead Crude Palm Oil as planned before, was used as reactant on transesterification reaction. Besides that the reaction condition was also modified from temperature 200 o C to 65 o C. The consequency of changing the reaction condition were the catalyst must be first activated through impregnation and the conversion of reaction might be lower. This changing had to be taken as transesterification reaction at 200 o C were very dangerous, very expensive and very difficult to be handled because of its high pressure (5 atm). An equal ratio of Zn(NO 3)2 and Fe(NO3)3 were dissolved in water with 2 molar of concentration as precursor solution. Assisted by carrier air precursor solution was nebulized in an ultrasonic nebulizer, OMRON NEU-17 and the droplet formed was flowed to the inner tube of the burner. LPG gas dan oxidant air were flowed to the inner annulus and outer annulus, respectively. The solid produced was separated from gas by particle filter. Solid particle obtained was then activated through calcination and impregnation. The impregnated particle was later called activated catalyst of nanocomposite of ZnO/Fe 2O3. It was then determined its catalytic performance on transesterification reaction for producing biodiesel. The activated catalyst of nanocomposite of ZnO/Fe 2O3 was mixed with methanol and the mixture was then filled into reactor while being stirred and heated till temperature 65 o C. Concurrently, Waste Cooking Oil was heated until the temperature reached 65 o C and then filled into reactor. The reactor was continuously stirred and kept temperature at 65 o C. during 3 hours. The products of reaction were then separated. Catalyst particle was separated using magnet in which it attached on the magnet surface and it was collected as catalyst recovery. Glycerol was separated from methyl ester through decantation.The glycerol was then analyzed to determine reaction conversion, and the other one was determined its methyl ester content using GC -MS. The result of the research showed that the higher the weight ratio of catalyst/waste cooking oil the higher the catalyst recovery and the higher the reaction conversion. The highest catalyst recovery occurred at 3.5% of weight ratio of catalyst/ waste cooking oil, i.e., 76.5%.The conversion slightly increased, with the average increase of 1.3% for every 0.5% weight ratio increase, from 13.3% on weight ratio of 0.5% to 21,28% on weight ratio of 3% and noticeably inclined to 24,47% on weight ratio of 3.5%. This conversion was still lower than the previous research result because of the lower the reaction temperature. T he examination using GC-MS showed that transesterification reaction using nanocomposite of ZnO/Fe 2O3 catalyst produced methyl ester, the main substance on biodiesel. The kinds of methyl ester produced was suitable with triglyceride contained in waste cooking oil. On the other word, nanocomposite of ZnO/Fe 2O3 was proven that it had a good cataytic property so that could be used as heterogenuous catalyst on transesterification reaction for producing biodiesel

    Item Type: Article
    Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
    Divisions: Fakultas Teknik > Teknik Kimia
    Depositing User: Miranda Nur Q. A.
    Date Deposited: 15 Apr 2014 03:41
    Last Modified: 03 May 2014 22:45

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